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World War One

Oakham School History Department World War I Links page
These links were collected for our Year 9 project on the First World War.
Spartacus, BBC, Imperial War Museum, Trenches on the Web, Poetry, Art and much, much more...
Go, look!

And these are further ones worth investigating:

PRO LearningCurve: The Great War, 1914-1918
Seven galleries investigating central aspects of the Great War and asking the question "Why did people say that the Great War had to be the war to end all wars ?"
Excellent investigation usaing primary material and encouraging thinking.

World War One - site with notes on all aspects of the first World War

The Western Front 1914 - 1918
The War Times Journal have produced this summary of the Western Front during the First World War.

The Eastern Front 1914 - 1916
A World War One summary of the Eastern Front, from The War Times Journal.
Maps and photographs are included.

World War 1 Eurohist
From AP European History
A list of assignments & questions, with links to information sites on a range of topics.
Useful World War One links

WWI Image Archive - Earth Station
Austria-Hungary Belgium France Germany Great Britain Greece Italy Japan Maps Russia Serbia Turkey United States

Angli Campus Eric Brown
Interesting source material following an officer who died on the Somme.
Some pages have an interactive exercise - sometimes quite simple - to sustain interest and exercise the brain!
Topics on: The British Expeditionary Force The race for the sea Eric Wreford Brown Travelling to the front The Ypres salient A letter from the trenches The daily routine Officers and men Death of a friend Reliable sources The Somme and the death of Eric Aftermath

2nd Battle of Ypres
In-depth treatment of the Second Battle of Ypres in the First World War can be found at this excellent site.
Well organised and easy to navigate, it makes good use of Javascript to provide detailed pop-up maps and timelines.
Intersting and effective.


Versailles - all you could possibly want to know!

Treaty of Versailles
Good factual summary - in some but not excessive detail.
Also German views listed, and what was ignored.

Peace Treaties with Germany's Allies (1919-23)
Good summary with comments

Inter-war diplomacy
Good summary with comments

World War II

BBC Education World War II sites featuring, amongst others:

Countdown to War - Day by day news reports as the world approaches war.
Audio clips - Hear the actual news, reports and programmes from 1939*.
Evacuation: The True Story - In depth article looking at the true story behind the evacuation.
Memories of the Evacuees - Listen to audio recollections*
The Daily Mirror Reports - What was happening in Britain on September 2, 1939?
The Blitz: A Graphic Summary - With photos from the Imperial War Museum.

BBC News Archive
Your Memories of WWII
Sights and Sounds
Hitler's Address to the Reichstag

WWII Programme Archive
Finest Hour - with Daily Mirror articles
War of the Century
One Foot in the Past - Defence of the Land - Defence of the People - Defence of Art

Causes of World War II - a useful round-up essay from Grolier:

World War II Commemoration
Grolier Online have produced this excellent site which outlines the conflict, its causes, heroes and impact on history.
There are biographies of the main personalities involved.
Contains: The Story of World War II - Read all about the conflict, its causes, its heroes, and its long-term impact on history.
Biographies & Articles - More informative articles about the war, organized by person and topic.
Air Combat Films, Photographs, World War II Links.

World War II - the full story from Grolier - excellent:

Eyewitness accounts of World War II
A developing site: Diaries, interviews from people giving personal accounts from the Army, Navy, RAF, Home Front, Civilians abroad...
A rich resource of first-hand experiences.

German armed forces in World War II - detailed look at every aspect:

WWII resources, concentrating on Pearl Harbor:

Focus on Cartoons - Public Record Office
An interesting examination - very useful for GCSE:

WWII Sights and sounds
Aircraft, America, Orphan Ann ("Tokyo Rose"), Great Britain, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, The Holocaust, Italy, Japan, Poland, Propaganda Broadcasters, Propaganda Posters, Russia [Updated 5/31/00] Yugoslavia, Sound Effects, Warships

WWII Britain Audio and Posters
D-Day, North Africa, Aircraft, El Alamein, Asia & The Pacific, Battleship Bismarck, Propaganda Broadcasts, The Battle of Britain, Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill, Sir Anthony Eden, Princess Elizabeth, Queen Elizabeth Europe's Conquest, Europe's Liberation, King George VI, The Graf Spee, H.M.S. Hood, Field Marshal Montgomery, Edward R. Murrow, Propaganda Posters, Sound Effects, Warships


Normandy 1944
Excellent Britannica Online page. Essays on Build Up | Invasion | Fighting Inland | Break-out | Normandy in Memory. Plenty of illustrations and diaries.

D-Day 6 June 1944 - History Revisited
Website designed for those who want to visit Normandy beaches. Comprehensive illustrated pages on all main areas and key topics. A well designed site that delivers useful information in digestible amounts.

Wikipedia Battle of Normandy
A comprehensive site but almost entirely text. Hot-links through every article make it easy to look up key points - but also to get taken off topic. BBC site: descriptions from the time and after, pictures and memorial occasions covered.

D-Day: Canada's role
Canadian Broadcasting site - reasonable coverage for its Canadian focus.

Imagining D-Day - from - 'The History behind Saving Private Ryan:

Home Front

London at war
This excellent site shows you aspects of how Londoners prepared for and survived the Blitz.
Organised in 5 sections: Shelter | Air Raids | Daily Life | Children.
Each of these contains further sub-sections.

The Public Record Office: Learning Curve Snapshot
The Home Front: How did people prepare for the war?

The Public Record Office: Learning Curve Exhibition
The Home Front 1939-45
There are 7 sections: Preparations for War | Evacuation | Bombing of Britain | Empire Home Front | Everyday Life | Women at War | Spies
Excellent investigation using primary material and encouraging thinking.

Home Front Interviews at Oakham School
Over 6 years some classes at Oakham School have carried out interviews with people who lived in Britain during the Second World War.
These interviews provide a good source of 'Home Front' material - there is a wide range of evidence.
Using 'Authorware Player' you can search across each year's interviews for key words.


The History Place: Holocaust Timeline -with links to articles. Excellent: The Holocaust. Links to a massive compilation of articles, a timeline, a glossary, and much more.
It's all here:

The Holocaust: a guide for students - from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Collection of on-line exhibits from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, including Anne Frank the writer, Kristallnacht, Berlin Olympics, Children in hiding, Kovno Ghetto, Persecution of homosexuals, Dietrich Bonehoeffer...
Holocaust Learning Center
Very well organised - excellent for teachers & bright students.
Good text and pictures, well linked - together and to other resources.

A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
A great site for instructional resources on the Holocaust.
Good clear outline of the following sections, with links to documents and illustrations.
Rise of the Nazi Party (1918-1933) | Nazification (1933-1939). | The Ghettos (1939-1941). | The Camps (1941-1942). | Resistance (1942-1944). | Rescue and Liberation (1944-1945). | Aftermath (1945-2000).
Also links to other recommended related sites.

Stories of the Holocaust:

Witnesses of the Holocaust:

Plans of the Concentration Camps - an interactive guide to Birkenau & Mauthausen

Images of the Holocaust: 2 pages of a catalogue of powerful images:

This impressive site provides a Jewish perspective on the Holocaust.

Atomic Bomb

Atomic Bomb: Decision
Documents on the decision to use the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

A-Bomb WWW Museum
Iinformation on the impact the first atomic bomb had on Hiroshima - to 'show that such weapons of total destruction should never again be used'.

Hiroshima: Was it necessary?
A very full essay, with supporting materials.

PRO LearningCurve: Truman - Hero or Villain?
Part of the excellent LearningCurve site - one of a series on 20th C leaders
This focuses on Truman and the decision to use the A-Bomb - examine contemporary sources, consider rival interpretations of Truman's role.


EarthStation Propaganda Posters - excellent.
U.S. British, Russian, French, German. Organised by country:

300 American World War II posters

Women in society

Spartacus Emancipation of Women, 1750-1920.
Every person, organisation and topic you could possibly want!

American West

'The West' - PBS site - huge and full of good material, including many photographic images

American West History Channel
Simple summary - good overview

The First Americans
A wonderful site on the culture, history and legends of Native Americans.
Starts at a basic level. Well illustrated.
If you follow the hypertext links on each page you can go deeper and get to some excellent source material, stories & illustrations.

Native Americans
Basic information with pretty pictures - but links to some excellent material:
Buffalo and its importnance to the Native American way of life;
Pages on all(?) the Native American Peoples or "Tribes".
Poster galleries.

Eyewitness - The Old West
An interesting collection of illustrated stories

Information on Individual Native American Nations - encyclopedic

Custer Battlefield Historical & Museum Association
A wonderful site for browsing the biographies of characters such as Sitting Bull, Reno and Custer, as well as a collection of photographs taken from the Little Bighorn Battlefield and a quiz to do too!

George Armstrong Custer - biography with links from 'The West' PBS TV series site
A good introduction to the man and his doings

Eyewitness to the Battle of the Little Bighorn - from 'The West' PBS TV series site


Albert Bierstadt

George Catlin

Thomas Cole

Frederic Remington

Charles M. Russell

Art of the American West: 9 paintings by various artists

Black Peoples of the Americas ... USA - Civil Rights

African American History
Encarta article - actually 29 chapters that tells the story of African Americans from the 15th century to the present day.
Looks at the main issues. Each article contains links to other Encarta articles, and to other relevant websites.
An excellent starting point for studies of Black Peoples of the Americas.

Key topics in African-American history in sections: Africa, Slavery, Civil Rights, Activists, Sports, Arts, Poetry.
Presented in clear structure - useful articles and links to other sites.

Britannica Study Guide
Thin at first glance, but if you explore you can find usseful articles and activities.

Spartacus Encyclopedia of Slavery 1840-1960
Another very full, superbly organised encyclopedia from Spartacus.
Language is accessible, aricles illustrated and very well supported with source quotations
Sections on Slave Accounts, The Slave System, Slave Life, Events and Issues, Campaigners Against Slavery (66), Political Organisations, British Campaigners.

Encarta Africana: The Peculiar Institution
"Slavery brought Africans to America and transformed them, their descendants, the continent and the world. Two and half centuries of enslavement, followed by another century of discrimination, limitations and abuse, have left indelible wounds."
Articls on: Slavery in the United States | Transatlantic Slave Trade | Amistad Mutiny | Slave Narratives | Free Blacks in the United States | Underground Railroad | Slave Rebellions in the United States | Abolitionism in the United States | Dred Scott Case

Olaudah Equiano or Gustavas Vassa, the African
As it says: 'This is the very moving story of an African who was captured and put on a slave ship.'
He features in every textbook!
BBC biography of Olaudah Equiano

Guardian Black History Links Page,5607,97492,00.html
Some good sites -although most are listed here.

BLACK RESISTANCE: Slavery in the United States
Collection of simple articles. Lively style.

Encarta Africana: Lynching
Article - intelligent, advanced language.
No pictures
What is lynching?
And other articles: Jim Crow etc - use the search machine

Encarta Africana: KuKluxKlan
Article - intelligent, advanced language. No pictures
And other articles: Jim Crow etc - use the search machine.

Famous African Americans in the Humanities:
20TH CENTURY - a biographical guide to resources
Everybody who is/was anybody, and maybe some more in the fields of Art, Education, Literature, Religion and Philosophy.
No politicians or campaigners unless they fit these categories - many do.

Lest we forget - Bennie McRae:
'Our agenda is simple. The contributors and I offer you the history, culture, preservation efforts, and current events of African-Americans, other ethnic, non-ethnic groups and individuals. We focus on and emphasize their sacrifices, relationships, interactions, patriotism as well as their contributions to the growth and development of this great nation. Let us never forget them.'
Very wide-ranging collection of links. 10% is worth following

BlackHistory Sounds
Sound/Video files of MLK, Malcolm X and others.

Africans in America
This website is a companion to 'Africans in America', a six-hour public television series.
"The website chronicles the history of racial slavery in the United States -- from the start of the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century to the end of the American Civil War in 1865 -- and explores the central paradox that is at the heart of the American story: a democracy that declared all men equal but enslaved and oppressed one people to provide independence and prosperity to another."
Usual excellent PBS site.
Language is quite advanced but it is well organised and well illustrated.
Resource bank of annotated images and documents, stories and commentaries.
Useful Teacher's area.

Library of Congress Exhibition: The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship
This is the address for the Civil Rights section, from where you can also get to earlier periods.
Includes short factual descriptions of key episodes & some good illustrations.

'Williamsburg: Half Free, Half Slave'
"In the eighteenth century, half the population of colonial Williamsburg was African-American.
Who were they, those first African-Americans? Where did they come from? And how did they become enslaved in the first place? How can we find the answers?"
A useful researching exercise, making use of on-line resources.

Welcome to African American History!
Fairly comprehensive site. Useful Table of Contents.
Several historical good articles, as it happened stories. No illustrations
Sections (each further divided into separate cases/pages) on
1. : The Dred Scott Case (1857):
2. After the Civil War (1865-1900):
3. Early Civil Rights Struggles (1945-1955):
4. The Civil Rights Movement (1955-1965):
5. School Integration (1955-1975):
The Murder of Emmett Till:
Montgomery Bus Boycott
School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas
Mississippi & Freedom Summer

African Americans
Huge site - links at the top of this page to:
Activism | Africa | Africana | African American History Month | African Languages | African Origins | Afrocentric | Archives | Arts | Authors | Biographies | Birth of a Nation | Black Films | Black Saints | Black Videos | Black Indians | Broadcasting | Canadian | Catholics | Celebrities | Census Facts | Civil Rights | HB Colleges | Culture | Dating | Demographics | Education | Educational Potpourri | Famous | Speeches | Fashion | Fraternities/Sororities | Genealogy | Harlem | Health | Heritage | Historical Documents | History | Juneteenth | K-12 | Kids | Kwanzaa | Links | Literature | Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. | MLKjr Speeches | Military | Misc | Museums | Music | My Bondage and My Freedom | National Parks and Historic Sites | Negro National Anthem | National Urban League | Newsgroups | Politics | Potpourri | Professional Organizations | Radio | Reference | Religion | Resources | Sciences | Shopping | Slavery | Sports | This Week in Black History | Today in Black History | Timeline | Up From Slavery | Women | Women's Health | Rosa Parks | Home

Spartacus Encyclopedia of Civil Rights, 1860-1980
Another very full, superbly organised encyclopedia from Spartacus.
Language is accessible, aricles illustrated and very well supported with source quotations
Sections on: Campaigners : 1860-1900 (94) | Campaigners : 1900-1980 (108) | 1840-1900: Issues, Events & Organizations | 1900-1980: Issues, Events & Organizations

Encarta Africana: Civil Rights Movement
Article - intelligent, advanced language. No pictures

Civil Rights Documents
Some major documents for the history of coloured people in the USA, from 1705 to 1966.

The Integration of Little Rock Central High School
Single page Photo article, with spelling mistake! Simple resource for the case.

Key Sites on Martin Luther King, Jr.
15 sites, with notes explaining what each offers.

Links for Martin Luther King - SeattleTimes
8 more links (some duplicate).

Speeches of Martin Luther King
Links to the texts of his major speeches.

"I have a dream"
Listen to a clip of MLK's famous speech.

"I have a dream" 2
Longer (1 minute), leading up to previous link.

Martin Luther King: "I have a dream"
The Speech! Text

Stanford University: The Martin Luther King Papers Project
Excellent site
Hear extracts from 9 landmark speeches:

  1. "Rediscovering Lost Values" - 28 February 1954
  2. "Paul's Letter to American Christians" - 4 November 1956
  3. "LovingYour Enemies" - 17 November 1957
  4. "A Knock at Midnight" - 1963 "The American Dream" - 4 July 1965
  5. "The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life" - 9 April 1967
  6. "Why Jesus Called a Man a Fool" - 27 August 1967
  7. "The Drum Major Instinct" - 4 February 1968
  8. "Unfulfilled Dreams " - 3 March 1968
  9. "Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution " -31 March 1968

Encarta Africana: March on Washington
"Forty years ago the Civil Rights Movement had its grandest hour. The August 28, 1963 March on Washington had an obvious impact, both on the passage of civil rights legislation and on nationwide public opinion."
A collection on the march, the background, the main figures and organisations involved.

National Civil Rights Museum
The Interactive Tour tells the story from before the Civil War.
Very well illustrated, with not too much text to a page - but you can only navigate it in order.
Takes a long time to get to the twentieth century.
To jump to the Brown vs Board of Education case in 1954, click here:

University of Virginia: History of the Civil Rights Movement
This is a fantastic site for Julian Bond's civil rights course. Bond is the current president of the NAACP.
If you click on the dates on the syllabus, a variety of useful audiovisual source materials come up.


Interpreting the Irish Famine
Interpreting - not a neutral version! But well organised and powerful.

IrelandStory: The Great Famine
Sections on: Prelude to Famine: Irish Agriculture, The Potato, Economics, Demographics
The Famine: Potato Blight, Distribution of Famine Effects, Peel's Relief Programme to July 1846, The Winter of 1846 to 1847, The Summer of Black '47, The Famine after 1847.
Effects of Famine: Agriculture, Emigration, Demographics

Illustrated London News
16 articles, 72 engravings from the Illustrated London News, between 1842 and 1857.
Fascinating and detailed resource.

BBC: The Search for Peace
"Piece together the puzzle of the Northern Ireland conflict by clicking the related subjects"...
4 sections on Profiles, Themes, Events, Parties/Paramilitaries - 10-24 articles in each, each page about 400 words. All together this site gives a good introduction to the recent history of Northern Ireland.
Watch out for typing errors though!

The Troubles
Maps & Statistics on the Troubles, 1969-1998

BBC: Good Friday Agreement§ion=&range=range&fromday=1&frommonth=11&fromyear=1997&today=30&tomonth=6&toyear=2004&order=sortboth
Search the BBC website for articles on the Good Friday Agreement.

CAIN: Good Friday Agreement
The Good Friday Agreement - full text from the CAIN website

CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet): Murals Gallery
The Directory contains a brief description, information on location, and status of 1,756 murals across Northern Ireland, photographed since 1996.
Organised into albums - with thumbnail, description, location, date, status… click on the thumbnail to go to fullpicture.
Not every mural is available as a photograph, but the site is continually developing.
There is a link to publications available on Murals in Northern Ireland.

BBC History Murals in Northern Ireland Gallery
Divided into 4 galleries
Republican: (1981-1994), (1995-2000)
Loyalist: (1981-1996), (1998-2000)
An easy to use guide - well organised with a short but good selection.

BBC News Picture Gallery of Murals
Picture gallery: Northern Ireland murals
Northern Ireland's political murals tell the stories of communities - and some of the darkest days of the Troubles. Here is a selection of some of them.

BBC Profile: Gerry Adams

BBC Profile: David Trimble

WWW-VL: History Of Ireland
Links on all aspects of Irish History


History of India
Easily navigated, Indian site which discusses the history of the nation from 8000 BC to modern times.
It is divided into time periods. The section covering the British in India covers the East India Company, the Indian Mutiny, the Raj, and Independence.
Presentation is good, although the content is not very extensive.

The life and death of Mahatma Gandhi
The BBC produced this illustrated single-page article on the life and influence of Gandhi in 1998 on the fiftieth anniversary of his assassination.
Unambitious but it gives a good overview of his career & ideas.